Art is “good” or “bad” only in a subjective sense, or so I’m always told. But is there really no objective measure by which to judge the merits of a work of art? I believe that there is a limited sense in which art can be objectively evaluated, provided certain definitions are agreed upon.
I think all acts of artistic creation are motivated by a universal human desire for personal expression. Therefore, I propose the following definition for art: “A work of art is an object or performance which is created primarily as an outlet for creativity.” For example, a bucket isn’t a work of art because it’s simply a tool designed to carry water. A painting, on the other hand, is created to capture an emotion or reproduce a scene; it isn’t useful in any utilitarian sense and can therefore be classified as art.
Unfortunately, this definition isn’t very pragmatic because it would mean that whenever you wanted to classify an object as art, you’d have to consult the artist and ask him why he created the object. A more useful definition might be: “An object is art if a viewer can recognize it as an expression of personal creativity.”
How, though, do you go about recognizing that an object is the product of creativity? For example, should Rorschach inkblots be classified as art? The first definition would imply that inkblots aren’t art, because they’re randomly created as tools for psychoanalysis. However, hang them up on the walls of the Guggenheim, and it would be fairly easy to mistake them as expressions of personal creativity, when surrounded by “abstract art.”
I think this is actually an important conclusion: if an object can’t be reliably distinguished from a random pattern, then it isn’t art. At least, not according to the more pragmatic definition– some objects may be created to express personal feelings but aren’t recognized as such by anyone else at a rate higher than chance would predict. This effectively means that some abstract art really isn’t art at all.
Faced with this unconventional conclusion, should I simply assume that my definition of art is wrong? I don’t believe it is, for the following reason: there’s evidence to suggest that humans are “programmed” by evolution to find patterns in their environment. We’re better at finding patterns in number sequences than computers, for instance, even though computers can analyze these patterns much more quickly than we can. This probably arises from the fact that our ancestors had to be able to quickly recognize things like the pattern of a tiger’s body in the seemingly random pattern of the jungle’s branches in order to survive. Because of this adaptation, humans are sometimes prone to seeing patterns where there really isn’t a pattern at all, such as in astrology. Or, in this specific instance, humans are prone to seeing patterns in abstract art that they mistakenly attribute to personal creativity.
It already seems that the two different definitions for art don’t correlate perfectly. Some objects can be created as expressions of personal feelings but not be recognized as such by everyone. Conversely, it’s possible to mistakenly think that an object was created as an expression of creativity when it’s actually random, like a Rorschach inkblot. In between these two extremes, the specific type of expression intended by the artist isn’t always the same as the expression that the viewer interprets. For example, a bungled drawing of a house may end up looking like an elephant, or a bad horror movie may be unintentionally funny.
I assert that the degree to which the two definitions for art correlate for a particular object is the degree to which the object is a “good” work of art. If the creative expression that the artist intended is the same as the interpreted meaning by an observer, then the artist has successfully conveyed his intent through his work. This will obviously vary between different people and through different cultures, but it should be possible to obtain an average that would be an effective objective measure of the worth of the artwork. Even though this measure is relative to each individual, it’s objective because it utilizes an unbiased criterion for distinguishing good art from bad art, rather than personal taste.
Even though creating art is a personal act of expression, it’s often experienced without the participation of the artist. Therefore, in addition to defining art by the creative intent of the artist, an alternate definition is based on the viewer-interpreted meaning of the piece. If there’s no way to reliably identify an object as an outlet of personal expression rather than a randomly generated pattern, then the object shouldn’t be classified as art. Furthermore, the degree of correlation between these two definitions approaches an objective measure of the art as the number of viewers increases.
(Ed. note: This article was first written on 2003-01-22.)Last modified May 10th, 2013